Multicenter COMPACT study of COMplications in Patients with sickle cell disease and utilization of iron Chelation Therapy

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Background: Over the past few decades, lifespans of sickle cell disease (SCD) patients have increased; hence, they encounter multiple complications. Early detection, appropriate comprehensive care, and treatment may prevent or delay onset of complications. Objective: We collected longitudinal data on sickle cell disease (SCD) complication rates and associated resource utilization relative to blood transfusion patterns and iron chelation therapy (ICT) use in patients aged 16 years to address a gap in the literature. Research design and methods: Medical records of 254 SCD patients 16 years were retrospectively reviewed at three US tertiary care centers. Main outcome measures: We classified patients into cohorts based on cumulative units of blood transfused and ICT history: <15 units, no ICT (Cohort 1 [C1]), 15 units, no ICT (Cohort 2 [C2]), and 15 units with ICT (Cohort 3 [C3]). We report SCD complication rates per patient per year; cohort comparisons use rate ratios (RRs). Results: Cohorts had 69 (C1), 91 (C2), and 94 (C3) patients. Pain led to most hospitalizations (76%) and emergency department (ED) (82%) visits. Among transfused patients (C2+C3), those receiving ICT were less likely to experience SCD complications than those who did not (RR [95% CI] C2 vs. C3: 1.33 [1.25-1.42]). Similar trends (RR [95% CI]) were observed in ED visits and hospitalizations associated with SCD complications (C2 vs. C3, ED: 1.94 [1.70-2.21]; hospitalizations: 1.61 [1.45-1.78]), but not in outpatient visits. Conclusions: Although the most commonly reported SCD complication among all patients was pain, patients who received ICT were less likely to experience pain and other complications than those who did not. These results highlight the need for increased patient and provider education on the importance of comprehensive disease management.

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