Macrophage HIV-1 gene expression and delay resolution of inflammation in HIV-Tg Mice

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While antiretroviral therapy increases the longevity of people living with HIV (PLWH), about 30% of this population suffers from three or more concurrent comorbidities, whose mechanisms are not well understood. Chronic activation and dysfunction of the immune system could be one potential cause of these comorbidities. We recently demonstrated reduced macrophage infiltration and delayed resolution of inflammation in the lungs of HIV-transgenic mice. Additionally, trans-endothelial migration of HIV-positive macrophages was reduced in vitro. Here, we analyze macrophages' response to LPS challenge in the kidney and peritoneum of HIV-Tg mice. In contrast to the lung infiltration, renal and peritoneal macrophage infiltrations were similar in WT and HIV-Tg mice. Higher levels of HIV-1 gene expression were detected in lung macrophages compared to peritoneal macrophages. In peritoneal macrophages, HIV-1 gene expression was increased when they were cultured at 21% O2 compared to 5% O2, inversely correlating with reduced trans-endothelial migration at higher oxygen levels in vitro. The resolution of macrophage infiltration was reduced in both the lung and the peritoneal cavity of HIV-Tg mice. Taken together, our study described the organ-specific alteration of macrophage dynamics in HIV-Tg mice. The delayed resolution of macrophage infiltration might constitute a risk factor for the development of multiple comorbidities in PLWH.

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