Can the rate and location of sessile serrated polyps be part of colorectal Cancer disparity in African Americans?

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Background: Up to 30% of colorectal cancers develop through the serrated pathway. African Americans (AAs) suffer a disproportionate burden of colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicopathological features of AA patients diagnosed with sessile serrated polyps (SSPs). Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of all colonoscopies (n = 12,085) performed at Howard University Hospital, from January 1st, 2010 to December 31st, 2015, of which 83% were in AA patients, (n = 10,027). Among AAs, pathology reports confirmed 4070 patients with polyps including 252 with SSPs. Demographic and clinical variables (i.e. sex, age, BMI, anatomic location, clinical symptoms, polyp size, and clinical indications were collected at colonoscopy. Results: In the AA population, the median age was 56 with interquartile range (IQR) of 51 to 62 years, 54% were female, and 48% had a BMI > 30. The most common reason for colonoscopy was screening (53%), whereas the prevalent reasons for diagnostic colonoscopies were changes in bowel habits (18%) and gastrointestinal bleeding (17%). The total number of SSPs among the 252 AA (diagnosed with SSPs) was 338. Of these, 9% (n = 29/338) had some degree of cytological dysplasia, primarily in the ascending colon (n = 6/42, 14%), Transverse colon (n = 2/16, 13%) and rectosigmoid (n = 19/233, 8%). About 24% of patients had more than 2 polyps. Most patients (76%) had distal SSPs (rectal and rectosigmoid), in comparison to 14% of proximal polyps and 10% of bilateral locations. Median SSA/P size for all locations was 0.6 cm. Conclusion: The prevalence of SSPs accounts for 6% of all polyps in AA patients and was diagnosed in 2.5% of all colonoscopies (n = 252/10,027), which is higher than Caucasians in the US. SSPs were predominantly located in the left side, as compared to published literature showing the predominance in the right side of the colon. Screening of CRC will have the chance to detect high risk SSA/P in this population.

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