Title

Audiologic and Otologic Complications of Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis in Non-HIV Previously Healthy Patients

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

7-1-2019

Abstract

Objective: To identify audiologic and otologic outcomes in previously healthy non-HIV patients with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM). Study Design: Retrospective case review of a subset of patients recruited in a prospective observational study following previously healthy individuals who developed CM.Setting: Tertiary referral center, National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. Patients: Previously healthy adult patients with CM without immune suppressive therapy before disease onset. Interventions: Diagnostic evaluations included audiometry, acoustic immittance, otoacoustic emissions, and auditory brainstem response studies, in addition to neurotologic assessment. Results: Twenty-nine patients (58 years) underwent audiologic evaluation between 6 months and 3.5 years after CM diagnosis; 21 patients were seen for longitudinal assessment with an average duration of follow up of 20.3 months. Nearly three-quarters (73%) of the cohort presented with hearing loss, most commonly (90%) sensorineural in origin. The most frequent degree of loss was mild and then moderate, although some patients had severe or profound impairment. Hearing loss improved (43%) or remained stable (38%) in most cases. Ears with internal auditory canal enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) had significantly more hearing loss than those without enhancement, although a similar finding was not observed with gyral enhancement or the presence of ependymitis or ventricular volume expansion. Hearing loss was not associated with reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glucose, CSF total protein, cryptococcal antigen, or total cell count. Conclusions: Hearing loss is a common manifestation of cryptococcal meningitis in previously healthy patients and may involve a cochlear or neural site of lesion, or both. Routine surveillance of hearing in patients is recommended, regardless of symptomatology, to ensure early and appropriate intervention and care.

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