Atherosclerotic Peripheral Artery Disease in the United States: Gender and Ethnic Variation in a Multiple Cause-of-Death Analysis

Document Type


Publication Date



Background: Atherosclerotic peripheral artery disease (PAD) is an important cause of morbidity in the United States. In this article, we conducted a multiple cause-of-death analysis of PAD to determine patterns and trends in its contribution to mortality. Methods: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention statistics data were used to determine the number of deaths with the following 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems codes selected as an underlying cause of death (UCOD) or a contributing cause considering multiple causes of death (MCOD): 170.2, 170.9, 173.9, 174.3, and 174.4. The age-adjusted death rates per 100 000 population by age, gender, race, ethnicity, and region were computed for the United States between the years 1999 and 2017. In these years, there were 47 728 569 deaths from all causes. Results: In 1999 to 2017 combined, there were a total of 311 175 deaths associated with PAD as an UCOD. However, there were 1 361 253 deaths with PAD listed as an UCOD or a contributing cause in MCOD, which is 4.3 times higher than UCOD. Age-adjusted MCOD rates were higher in males (25.6) than in females (19.4). Among non-Hispanics, the rate in African American males and females was 1.2 times higher than in Caucasians. Age-adjusted MCOD rates have declined in African Americans and Caucasians irrespective of gender from 2000 to 2017. Conclusion: Peripheral artery disease is mentioned 4 times as often on death certificates as a contributing cause of death as it is chosen as the UCOD. Overall, age-adjusted MCOD rates were higher in African Americans than Caucasians, males than females, and declined between 2000 and 2017.

This document is currently not available here.