Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Cataract: Sonographic Features and Perinatal Outcome in 41 Cases

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Purpose To describe the prenatal ultrasonographic characteristics and perinatal outcomes of congenital cataract. Materials and Methods We analyzed congenital cataract diagnosed prenatally at four referral centers between August 2004 and February 2019. The diagnosis was confirmed by postnatal ophthalmologic evaluation of liveborn infants or autopsy for terminated cases. Maternal demographics, genetic testing results, prenatal ultrasound images, and perinatal outcomes were abstracted. Results Total of 41 cases of congenital cataract diagnosed prenatally among 788751 women undergoing anatomic survey. Based on the sonographic characteristics, 16/41 (39.0%) had a dense echogenic structure, 15/41 (36.6%) had a hyperechogenic spot and 10/41 (24.4%) had the double ring sign. 17/41 (41.5%) were isolated, and 24/41 (58.5%) had associated intraocular and extraocular findings. Microphthalmia, cardiac abnormalities, and central nervous system abnormalities were the most common associated abnormalities. Regarding potential etiology, 6 cases had a known family history of congenital cataract, 4 cases had confirmed congenital rubella infection, and 2 cases had aneuploidy. 31/41 (75.6%) elected termination and 10/41 (24.4%) elected to continue their pregnancy. Among the 10 cases, one case died, one case was lost to follow-up, and the remaining 8 cases were referred for ophthalmologist follow-up and postnatal surgery. Conclusion Once fetal cataracts are detected, a detailed fetal anatomy survey to rule out associated abnormalities and a workup to identify the potential etiology are recommended. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital cataracts provides vital information for counseling and subsequent management.

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