Risk Factors Associated With Adverse Outcomes After Ventral Hernia Repair With Component Separation

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Background: Over 350,000 surgeries are performed for ventral hernias (VHs) annually. Abdominal wall component separation has been more frequently used for the management of VHs. The goal of this study is to better understand factors associated with component separation complication rates. Methods: The National Inpatient Sample (2005-2014) was used to identify all patients with an International Classification of Diseases ninth Revision diagnosis of VHs who underwent open VH repair with a pedicleor graft advancement flap. All cases included in this study were elective and not associated with additional procedures. Demographic, clinical, and hospital characteristics were extracted. Independent predictors of complications and outcomes were determined by multivariable regression analysis. Results: Component separation was performed in 4346 patients. Mean age was 56; majority were female (55%) and white (80%). Most patients (73%) underwent surgery in an urban teaching hospital; mesh was used in 80% of cases and 11% were smokers. Hypertension was the most common comorbidity (50%), followed by obesity (26%), diabetes mellitus (DM) (23%), coronary artery disease (11%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (8%). Half of the patients (50%) had private insurance, and 35% had Medicare. Patients were distributed equally over household income quartiles. The mortality rate was 0.5%; median length of stay was 5 d. Overall complication rate was 25% (wound 11%, intraoperative 5%, infectious 11%, and pulmonary 8%). Mesh was associated with a lower rate of wound complications (10% versus 15%, P = 0.001). On multivariable analysis, patients with COPD (odds ratio: 2.02; 95% confidence interval: 1.58-2.59), obesity (1.37; 1.16-1.63), DM (1.3; 1.09-1.55), and those in the lowest income quartile (1.44; 1.06-1.96) had higher overall complication rates. Conclusions: Consistent with other studies, patients with COPD, Obesity, DM, and lower income status were associated with increased complications after component separation.

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