Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Among Older Adults: Patterns, Outcomes, and Trends

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Introduction: Although the numbers of older adults in the US are rapidly increasing, there is sparse recent data on the use and outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) among this population. We aimed to evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of older adults undergoing CABG and to measure temporal trends. Materials and methods: Using data from the National Inpatient Sample (2005-2014), patients aged 85 y and older who underwent CABG were selected. Demographic, clinical, and hospital characteristics were extracted. Outcomes measured were hospital mortality, hospital length of stay, discharge home, and operative complications. Patients were grouped by 2-year increments. Differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes over time were evaluated using trend analyses. Results: There were 60,124 patients included in the cohort. The mean age was 86.8 y with majority being men (61%), white (88%), and treated in teaching hospitals (61%). Over the study period, the annual surgical volume decreased from 6689 in 2005/06 to 5150 in 2013/14. Mortality decreased from 8.5% to 5.5% (P-trend <0.001) and mean hospital length of stay decreased from 13.9 d to 12.0 d (P-trend <0.001), whereas the rate of discharge home remained stable (14.1% versus 11.6%, P-trend = 0.056). Compared with patients in 2005/06, those in 2013/14 had higher comorbidities [diabetes: 27.6% versus 17.3%; chronic kidney disease: 29.8% versus 9.2%; peripheral artery disease: 7.5% versus 6.0%; and hypertension: 83.7% versus 64.5% (all P-trend <0.001)]. Conclusions: CABG volumes are decreasing among older adults, and comorbidity burden is increasing, but outcomes are improving. These data may indicate improved preoperative optimization and better perioperative care processes.

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