Geographic heterogeneity in influenza and pneumonia mortality in hispanic Americans

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(1) Background: Influenza and pneumonia (IP) is a leading cause of death in the US. The hypothesis was tested that the mortality rate differential between Hispanic whites (HW) and non-Hispanic whites (NHW) from IP varied by geographic region in the US. (2) Methods: The CDC database for multiple causes of death between 1999–2018 was used for this study. For ages 25–84, age-adjusted mortality rates per 100,000 (AAMR) for IP were computed by Hispanic ethnicity in whites for 10 Health & Human Services (HHS) regions and for urbanization levels in HHS Region 2. (3) Results: AAMR for IP was 13.76 (13.62–13.9) in HW and 14.91 (14.86–14.95) in NHW (rate ratio 1.08). Among HHS regions, rates were generally lower in HW than in NHW with the major exception of HHS Region 2. The rate there was 21.78 (21.24–22.33) in HW, 36.5% greater (p < 0.05) than that in NHW of 15.71 (15.56–15.86). In large central metro areas of Region 2, the rate was 27.10 (26.36–27.83) in HW compared to 19.78 (19.47–20.09) in NHW. (4) Conclusion: The difference in AAMR from IP between HW and NHW varied by region and urbanization with much higher rates for HW than NHW only in metropolitan areas of New York and New Jersey.

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