Identification of an alternatively spliced site in human plasma fibronectin that mediates cell type-specific adhesion

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We have compared the molecular specificities of the adhesive interactions of melanoma and fibroblastic cells with fibronectin. Several striking differences were found in the sensitivity of the two cell types to inhibition by a series of synthetic peptides modeled on the Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS) tetrapeptide adhesion signal. Further evidence for differences between the melanoma and fibroblastic cell adhesion systems was obtained by examining adhesion to proteolytic fragments of fibronectin. Fibroblastic BHK cells spread readily on f13, a 75-kD fragment representing the RGDS-containing, "cell-binding" domain of fibronectin, but B16-F10 melanoma cells could not. The melanoma cells were able to spread instead on f9, a ll3-kD fragment derived from the large subunit of fibronectin that contains at least part of the type III connecting segment difference region (or "V" region); f7, a fragment from the small fibronectin subunit that lacks this alternatively spliced polypeptide was inactive. Monoclonal antibody and f13 inhibition experiments confirmed the inability of the melanoma cells to use the RGDS sequence; neither molecule affected melanoma cell spreading, but both completely abrogated fibroblast adhesion. By systematic analysis of a series of six overlapping synthetic peptides spanning the entire type III connecting segment, a novel attachment site was identified in a peptide near the COOH-terminus of this region. The tetrapeptide sequence Arg-Glu-Asp-Val (REDV), which is somewhat related to RGDS, was present in this peptide in a highly hydrophilic region of the type III connecting segment. REDV appeared to be functionally important, since this synthetic tetrapeptide was inhibitory for melanoma cell adhesion to fibronectin but was inactive for fibroblastic cell adhesion. REDV therefore represents a novel adhesive recognition signal in fibronectin that possesses cell type specificity. These results suggest that, for some cell types, regulation of the adhesion-promoting activity of fibronectin may occur by alternative mRNA splicing. © 1986, Rockefeller University Press., All rights reserved.

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