Planning diets for individuals using the dietary reference intakes

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Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are now available for energy, macronutrients, fiber, vitamins, and minerals, and can be used to plan diets for individuals. This article defines the four DRIs (the Estimated Average Requirement, the Recommended Dietary Allowance, the Adequate Intake, and the Tolerable Upper Intake Level), and describes two other reference standards-the Estimated Energy Requirement and the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range. Planning diets for individuals involves identifying the appropriate nutrient intake goals, translating the nutrient goals into food intake (and supplement use, if warranted), assessing the plan, and revising it if required. This process is illustrated using case studies of a female vegetarian marathon runner and an older male smoker. © 2003 International Life Sciences Institute.

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