Long-Face Dentofacial Deformities: Occlusion and Facial Esthetic Surgical Outcomes

Document Type


Publication Date



Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document malocclusion and facial dysmorphology in a series of patients with long face (LF) and chronic obstructive nasal breathing before treatment and the outcomes after bimaxillary orthognathic, osseous genioplasty, and intranasal surgery. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients with LF undergoing bimaxillary, chin, and intranasal (septoplasty and inferior turbinate reduction) surgery was implemented. Predictor variables were grouped into demographic, anatomic, operative, and longitudinal follow-up categories. Primary outcome variables were the initial postoperative occlusion achieved (T2; 5 weeks after surgery) and the occulsion maintained long-term (>2 years after surgery). Six key occlusion parameters were assessed: overjet, overbite, coincidence of dental midlines, canine Angle classification, and molar vertical and transverse positions. The second outcome variable was the facial esthetic results. Photographs in 6 views were analyzed to document 7 facial contour characteristics. Results: Seventy-eight patients met the inclusion criteria. Average age at surgery was 24 years (range, 13 to 54 yr). The study included 53 female patients (68%). Findings confirmed that occlusion after initial surgical healing (T2) met the objectives for all parameters in 97% of patients (76 of 78). Most (68 of 78; 87%) maintained a favorable anterior and posterior occlusion for each parameter studied long-term (mean, 5 years 5 months). Facial contour deformities at presentation included prominent nose (63%), flat cheekbones (96%), flat midface (96%), weak chin (91%), obtuse neck-to-chin angle (56%), wide lip separation (95%), and excess maxillary dental show (99%). Correction of all pretreatment facial contour deformities was confirmed in 92% of patients after surgery. Long face patients with higher preoperative body mass index levels were more likely to have residual facial dysmorphology after surgery (P =.0009). Conclusion: Using orthognathic surgery techniques, patients with LF dentofacial deformity achieved the planned occlusion and most maintained the corrected occlusion long-term. In unoperated patients with LF, a “facial esthetic type” was identified. Orthognathic surgery proved effective in correcting associated facial dysmorphology in most patients.

This document is currently not available here.